Taariikhda Raasiga Berbera (WQ: Axmed Ibraahim Cawaale)

Raasigu waa dhulyare dhererkiisu yahay 3.2 kiilomitar, oo badda Berbera hore u sii gashan, waxana uu ku caan yahay in uu yahay dugsi iyo gabbaad maraakiibta iyo doonyaha ka caabbiya kacdoonka badda. Ahaanshiiyaha ay magaalada Berbera ahayd, xilliyo aad u durugsan, marsada ugu magaca weyn xeebta dheer ee carriga Soomaaliyeed waxa door muhiim ah ka ciyaaray Raasigeeda dabiiciga ah, mana jiro ku kale oo la mid ah oo ku yaal xeebaha Carriga Soomaaliyeed. Haddii aanu Raasigaasi jiri lahayn, Berberana ma jirteen.  Raasigani waxa uu ka  dhigay  Berbera goobta ugu habboon ee doonyihii iyo maraakiibtii hore ku soo xidhan jireen ama barroosinka dhigan karaan. Ahmiyadda uu Raasigaasi Berbera u lahaa waxa ay ku xusan tahay qoraal soo baxay ammin hadda laga joogo 2,000 gu’ oo magaciisa la yidhaahdo The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea,[1] waana kan inta Berbera iyo Raasigeeda laga xusay:

 […Marka la dhaafo Saylac, waxa la gaadhayaa magaalo-sayladeed kale, taas oo ka roon tii hore, waxana ay u jirtaa 800 oo stadia. Meesha barroosinka la dhigtaana waa qoorri furan oo raasi dhinaca bari kaga yaallaa oo maayadda xooggeeda ka ilaaliyo (kana dhigo dugsi). Halkan dadka deggani waxoogaa ayay ka doobir iyo nabadjaceyl badan yihiin (kuwii hore). Waxa halkan loo soo dhoofshaa waxyaalaha aynnu hore u soo sheegnay, iyo maryo gacmo gaab ah oo jilbaha jooga, koodhadh la midabeeyay oo laga keenay Arsinoe, koobab wax lagu cabbo, waxoogaa naxaas ah, bir, dhururi dahab iyo lacag (silver) ah, aan se badnayn. Waxyaalaha laga dhoofiyo meelahan waa malmal, beeyo (loo yaqaan “Far-side”), qorfe adag, duacaIndian copal iyo macir, laga keenay Berri-Carab; iyo addoon – in kasta oo ay yar yihiin ama aaney joogto ahayn..]

(Cutubka 9aad ee the Peripuls of the Erythrean Sea).

 Muuqaalxarriiq (sketch) ku soo baxay Buuggii Richard Burton, The First Footsteps in East Africa (1856) oo muujinaya Raasigii, Qudbigii Sheekh Jeberti, Xabaalihii Saadada (Bender Cabbaas), Qudbigii Sheekh Isaxaaq iyo magaaladii, magaaladii Berbera, iyo ardaagii Ingiriiska. 

Dhismeyaasha taariikhiga ah ee ku yaal  Raasiga Berbera waxa ka mid ah:

Berberi sooyaalka war-is-gaadhsiineed ee carriga Soomaalida meel hore ayaa ay kaga jirtaa. Waxa jiray keebal teligaraaf (telegraph) oo Badda Cas la soo dhigay, soona gaadhay Berbera 1890kii, lana dhigay Raasiga Berbera.  Khadkaasi waxa uu dalka Ingiriiska ku xidhayay Cadan, Berbera, Hindiya iyo Ustaraaliya.  Mar kale, 1912 ayaa isla Raasiga Berbera lagu rakibay qalabkii Dhiidhaada la odhan jiray (Morse Code) ee xogaha lagu gudbin jiray, markii dambena lagu fidiyay Hargeysa, Saylac iyo Burco.

Dhisme qalabaysnaa oo ay BBC-du lahaan jirtay oo barnaamajyadeeda u sii lalin jiray Afrikada Bari iyo Koonfurteed (BBC East Africa Relay Station) ayaa isna goobtaas ka jiray.   Dhismaheeda waxa la bilaabay 1959kii, waxana la howl geliyay 1960kii.  Ha yeeshee, ismaandhaaf siyaasadeed oo dhex marey Dawladdii Soomaaliya iyo Ingiriiska oo la xidhiidha gobolladii  kale ee carriga Soomaaliyeed ee aan xilligaas ka madaxbannaanin gumaysteyaashii kale ayaa dhaliyay in xidhiidhkii labada dal xumaado, ugu dambaynna  bishii Abril 1963kii ay xidhanto xaruntii warlaliska ee BBCda ee ku taallay Berbera.  Haatan, dhismihii oo qalfoof ah ayaa weli taagan.

Isla  meel u dhexaysa madaxa Raasiga iyo magaalada, waxa la sheegaa in uu ku yaal Qudbigii Sheekh Jabarti. Lama se hubo in ay meeshaasi tahay xabaashiisii dhabta ahayd iyo in ay ahayd maqaam Sheekhaas lagu xusi jiray.   Qoraal yar oo ku saaban qudbigaas oo uu qoray in Ingiriis ah oo la odhon jiray John Studdy Leigh oo Berbera bookhasho ku yimid 1838kii (ammin hadda laga joogo 179 gu’).  Sidan ayuu faahfaahin uga bixiyay “qabrigaas”:

“Meel fogaan ahaan kala badha caarada raasiga Berbera iyo magaalada waxa ka jira qabrigii Sheekh Jabarti.  Waa dhisme afargeesood ah oo marka meel fog laga daymoodo qudbigu sida minaaradda u eg yaha. Markii aannu gaadhnay,  nimankii ila socday waxa ay igu dirqiyeen in aanan  kabo la’aan ku gelin dhismaha qudbiga. Badhtamaha waxa ahaa dhismihii ‘xabaasha’ oo ka samaysan dhagaxshacaabi iyo sibidh, laguna dahaadhay laba maro oo leh midab dhalaalaya. Qurbaan ay dad hore u soo  booqday dhigeen ayaa meesha yaallay, sidoo kale,  ugxaan gorayo, oo ka mid ahaa waxyaabaha lagu qurxiyo baraha cibaadada ayaa yaallay.  Gees walba oo dhismaha xabaasha (kor dhulka uga kacsan) waxa ka muuqday god yar oo dabqaadyada la dhigo, laguna carfiyo xabaasha.  Fooxii dabqaayada ka baxayay ayaa labadii nin ee ila socday kor u qaadeen kuna afuufeen gudihii dhismaha iyaga oo debnaha  ka soo saaraya  dhawaaq ay “Sheekha” ugu ducaynayaan. Gidaarka iyo qayb ka mid ah derbiyayda ayaa isku dhacsanaa, sida aan u fahmayna, ay ka dambeeyeen Wahaabiyiinti.”

“Half way between the town and the point is the tomb of Sheikh Djibbarteyn, a square building with the appearance of a tower at a distance. The persons who accompanied me would not suffer me to enter without taking off my shoes. In the centre was a long tomb of stones and mortar, covered with two cloths of brilliant hues, the offering of some pious Mussulmen, as well as a few ostrich eggs, the usual ornaments of a mosque. At each end of the tomb was a recess where two earthen vessels of perfumes were placed. My companions took them both out and blowing into each pronounced an ejaculation to the Sheikh. The roof and part of the walls of the building were fallen in, destroyed, as I understood, by the Wahibis.”[2]

Mar aan anigu booqday dhismahaas 2015kii, waxa jiray jid yar oo aan dhererkiisa ku hilaadiyay 200 mitir – kaas oo dhulka Raasiga wax yar kor uga kacsan oo laga sameeyay dhagac shacaabi aan la talbiisin. Waxana loogu talo galay in qofka booqanayaa in aanu biyaha badda cagaha la gaadhin xilliga ay baddu soo buuxsanto.  Dhismaha xaaladdiisu ma xumayn marka la barbar dhigo sida uu ninkaas Ingiriis uga warramay 167 gu’ ka hor, waxana ay u ekayd in dayactir laga samayn jiray.  Meesha gebi ahaanteed waxa ku gedaannayd saansaan degganaansho, oo mararka qaarkood naftaada ku xambaarayey in aad xusuus hummaag ah aad maankaaga dib ugu giraagiriso.   La yaabna ma ay lahayn, Berbera oo la odhon jiray ‘Miskiinkoris’ ama ‘Hooyadii Masaakiinta’ in dadkeeda qaar ay u hurdo tegi jireen xeebtaas ka ag dhow Qudbigaas. Ciidda ayaa ay kala xaadhi jireen, ka dibna lac odhon jireen iyaga oo cirka huwan dhulkana goglan.

Arrinka saddexaad ee sooyaalka Raasiga Berbera aynnu ku soo qaadanaynaa waa noobiyad uu Ruushku ka dhisay caarada Raasiga Berbera (Tamara Point) bilowgii 1970aadkii.  Marka la barbar dhigo middii hore ee ay Masaaridi dhistay (1877), kan dambe ee Raasiga ku oollaan jiray waxa laga suubbiyey biro la isku xidhxidhay.  Se dib ayaa loo dayactiray, ahmiyaddeeduna waxa ay tahay in ay maraakiibta ku soo hagto marsada Berbera.

Kalaqaydashada aan loo miidaan deyayn ee dhulka magaalada Berbera waxa ay keeni doontaa in raadad taariikheed oo kuwan iyo qaar kaleba ka mid yihiin  la waayi doono – arrinkaas oo qaayodhac ku keeni kara sooyaalka hodanka ah ee magaalda iyo weliba fursado dhaqaale iyo qaar dalxiisba.  In Raasiga la magaaleeyaa, waxa ay soo af jaraysaa fursad ay dekaddu ku fidi lahayd, una noqon lahayd marso ku fillaan karta baahiyaha dhoofineed iyo waxsoodejineed ee qarniyada soo socda.

Raadraac

  1. The Forgotten BBC East Africa Relay Station at Berbera. (article dated May 2011)

  2. James Kirkman, John Studdy Leigh in Somalia,

  3. Walsh, L. P., Under the Flag and Somali Coast Stories (1932)

  4. Burton, Richard, First Footsteps in East Africa (1856)

  5.     The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

[1] The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Waxa uu ahaa  qoraal kooban oo uu qoray nin Giriig ah oo naakhuude ahaa,  oo aan magaciisa la haynin, ahaana reer Alexanderia, xilligii Boqorkii Nero ka talinayay dhulka Roomaanka.   Qoraalkaasi waxa uu ahaa hage loogu talo galay maraakiibta isaga dhex gooshi jirtay marsooyinka Badda Cas iyo Bariga Afrika, Gacanka  Berbera (Cadmeed), Gacanka Beershiya (Iiraan) iyo Hindiya, isla markaana ka war bixinayay ganacsiga iyo dadyowgii ku noolaa dhulalkaas.

[2] John Studdy Leigh in SomaliaAuthor(s): James Kirkman. Source: The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 8, No. 3 (1975), pp. 441-456

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W/Q  Axmed Ibraahin Cawaale

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